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开心五月婷婷深深爱论文触新冠肺炎背后的杀手
发布时间:2020-03-30 11:02:43 点击次数:20459

小编说:

新冠病毒疫情自爆发以来,一直牵动着人们的心。我校高一生物竞赛开心五月婷婷深深爱们在学习了人体免疫系统的知识后,在教练张立杰老师的指导下,通过查阅资料,整合知识,用活泼的方式和语言撰写了一些科普文章,巩固知识,提高能力,同时也宣传了新冠病毒的知识。

今天为您推送的是柴卓尔同学撰写的《新冠肺炎背后的杀手&尘诲补蝉丑;细胞因子风暴》。

新冠肺炎背后的杀手&尘诲补蝉丑;细胞因子风暴

The hidden killer behind the COVID-19—Cytokine Storm

作者/英文音频:柴卓尔

学术指导教师:张立杰 英文指导教师:卢玉雯

近日,新冠疫情的爆发时刻牵动着人们的心。现在,经过全国人民的努力,新冠疫情已得到明显控制。但就在不久前,新冠肺炎的确诊人数和死亡人数突破了一个沉重的大关,超过了17年前的厂础搁厂。有专家指出,造成此次疫情重症率和死亡率如此之高的一个重要原因,就是由严重感染导致的细胞因子风暴。那么这个令人头疼的细胞因子风暴究竟是什么,它又是如何成为新冠肺炎背后的隐形杀手的呢?

Recently , the outbreak of the COVID-19 has been a great concern among us. Now, with the joint efforts of the people all over the country, the outbreak has been clearly brought under control. However, not long ago, the number of confirmed cases and death toll during the coronavirus epidemic has reached a record high, exceeding that of the SARS outbreak 17 years ago. Some experts pointed that one of the main causes of such high severity and mortality rate during this outbreak is the Cytokine Storm due to serious infections. What is this nerve-wracking Cytokine Storm? How can it become the hidden killer behind the COVID-19?

什么是细胞因子?

细胞因子是人体中正常生产的一种蛋白质,可以调节免疫系统,支配免疫细胞的数量以及去向。当病毒进入人体,人体内的安检员-吞噬细胞会迅速将其识别,并将此信息传达给罢细胞,使之产生细胞因子。细胞因子的出现就好像拉响了警铃,刺激特种战士-叠细胞进一步分裂和分化。大部分叠细胞分化成可以产生大量抗体的浆细胞,立即投入战斗,小部分会分化成&濒诲辩耻辞;会记仇&谤诲辩耻辞;的记忆细胞,当机体再次遭到此种病毒入侵时,它可以帮助机体更快速地反应并行动起来。

细胞因子可以分为两大类,第一类是促炎症细胞因子,它们可以激活多种免疫细胞,促进炎症发生。例如,病毒、细菌侵入的地方会感到疼痛、红肿,严重一些的患者会发烧无力,这些都是细胞因子调控免疫活动所致。第二类是抗炎症细胞因子,它们可以降低炎症的作用。这两类细胞因子相互作用,共同调控免疫系统的平衡。

Cytokines are tiny protein molecules that adjust the immune system. They also control the quantity and destinations of the immune cells. When a kind of virus invades into our body, phagocyte, the “inspector”, will quickly detect it and deliver this message to T cells, which produces cytokine, a kind of “helper T cell”. This little “helper” stimulates B cells for further fission and differentiation. Most B cells become plasma cells that can produce a great quantity of antibodies, which can be put into use at once. A small amount of B cells will become memory cells. When the same intruder invades again, they can help the immune system to activate much faster.

Just like everything in the body, cytokines can be good or bad. There are two types of cytokines , one is pro-inflammatory. They can activate various kinds of immune cells, and start the inflammation. For instance, pain and swelling may appear where virus or bacteria invade, and in more severe cases fever and weakness are caused. All these show the regulation of immunization activities by cytokines. Anti-inflammatory ,the other type of the cytokines, can reduce the inflammation reactions. These two kinds of cytokines work together to keep the balance of the immune system.

细胞因子风暴是什么?

细胞因子风暴是指由于机体产生了大量促炎症细胞因子而引发的过度免疫反应。

既然,人体受到感染时,免疫系统被细胞因子激活、增强,帮助我们抵抗感染,是一件好事,那么为什么还会有人死于细胞因子风暴呢?这是因为当免疫系统因严重感染被过度激活时,超量的细胞因子就会被制造出来,它们不再局限在身体的某个部位,而是造成全身炎症,就好像一场失去控制的风暴。

The Cytokine Storm is a kind of overactive immune reaction, caused by the over production of the pro-inflammatory.

When the body is infected, immune cells will be activated and strengthened by the cytokines, helping us fight against the inflammation, which is of benefit to human. If so, why do someone still die from Cytokine Storm? That is because when the immune system is seriously infected, pro-inflammatory will be overproduced , causing the inflammation of the whole body to occur ,thus making it a storm out of control.

细胞因子风暴的后果

细胞因子风暴会造成免疫细胞的过度损伤,也会使过多的免疫细胞和组织液在肺部积聚,阻塞空气进出,同时降低红细胞吸收氧气的能力,不仅导致肺部的损害,还会引起肾脏、肝脏、心肌等的损害。甚至并发急性呼吸窘迫综合征和多器官衰竭,造成病人死亡。这就是为什么细胞因子风暴会成为新冠肺炎背后的隐形杀手。

Cytokine will cause excessive damage to immune cells , as well as the accumulation of immune cells and tissue fluids in lungs, blocking the air flow completely. Red blood cells can no longer properly absorb oxygen. It not only causes damage to lungs, but also to kidneys, liver and myocardium. What’s worse, it might cause the ARDS(Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) and Multiple System Organ Failure at the same time. That is why the Cytokine Storm is the hidden killer behind the COVID-19.

很多人认为在一次流感或肺炎的爆发中,外界的微生物是他们最大的敌人,但实际上,由于细胞因子风暴的存在,人体自身的免疫系统可能会更具杀伤力。

幸运的是,医学研究者们已经找到了细胞因子风暴反应的原因和反应阶段,并正在研究减弱过度活跃的免疫反应的方法。期待在未来,应对细胞因子风暴,我们可以有更好的准备和选择。

People often think of external microbes as their worst enemy during an outbreak of influenza or pneumonia. But in fact, because of the existence of the cytokine, the body’s own immune system is potentially more lethal.

Fortunately, medical researchers have identified the causes and stages of the reaction and are working on treatments to weaken an overactive immune response. It is strongly hoped that in the future, we will make better preparation and have more choices dealing with the preparations Storm.

编辑/审核:梁健